Tag Archives: Culture

Re-encountering Biafra in film archives

What personal and collective memory is evoked when we encounter films from a historical period? The discovery, in 2015, of a batch of films from Nigeria’s postcolonial and post-war history in the abandoned rooms of the old Colonial Film Unit in Lagos, led me to reflect about the possibilities and challenges that arise from it for public memorializing. Their seeming sudden presence triggered the question: What process of forgetting triggered this mass internment?

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Perhaps, the answer lies in two titles we kept encountering as we began the initial process of analyzing and documenting the cans: Shehu Umar, a film about a kidnapped boy who rose from slavery to become a sage. It is based on the title novella by Nigeria’s first Prime Minister, the late Sir Tafawa Balewa, who died in the coup staged in 1966 by radical young officers of the Nigerian army that led to the Biafran War. The second film was The Nigeria Civil War, footage shot by federal forces documenting the Biafra War.

In the 1950s and 1960s, the situation for film archiving was quite good, Nigeria was a fine example of how to organize state archives – until the Biafran War. Following the war, archival considerations quickly deteriorated. The abandonment of Nigeria’s film archives, therefore, originated in the experience of trauma: the Biafra-Nigeria war. Encountering this archive is, thus, a re-encounter with trauma, as well as an attempt to understand it, to reflect on and engage with the biography of the material, the gaps and political controversy that exists within its history. The initial response was how to present this history, the memory stored in these cans. To compensate for the lack of prior encounter with film archives, a series of films, among them Jonathan Oppenheimer’s “The Act of Killing” – about anti-communist, state-sanctioned violence in Indonesia – was screened to illustrate how remembering could be deployed, not only to excavate history and memory, but also how audiences can contribute to coming to terms with the past and negotiating personal and collective trauma.

But, there were misgivings. In a world where terrorists have staged executions, how do you watch murderers in elaborate costume enter character and stage acts of torture and killings they perpetrated? Especially, that terminal sequence when one of the murderers asked to be taken to the venue where the most heinous acts took place and, unable to endure his own memories, began to throw up. I have mixed feelings over this scene – should Oppenheimer have turned off the camera? Incidentally, the attempted coup and subsequent mass killings in Indonesia in the mid-1960s bear similarity with Nigeria’s and was separated by just a year. (Indonesia recently opened discussions on this dark past, one of the bloodiest events of the 20th century, with a public symposium.)

The question, 50 years after the start of the Biafran War, is: how could a national archive of films contribute to the practice of memory and coming to terms with the past 50 years, and events of 1967? Could this archival practice, as a site of public memory, be a beginning symbol of closure? Both my parents were survivors of the war, but they lost everything. My first experience of the act of forgetting was my father’s silence, his refusal to talk about the war.

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By Didi Cheeka

Credit picture: Daniel lam via Flickr

Dakar’s African Renaissance

I have wanted to come to Dakar since I was a young man growing up in western Kenya reading Léopold Sédar Senghor’s poetry. My mother, a schoolteacher, made me read Senghor’s poetry aloud before asking me to explain what Senghor was thinking when he wrote his poetry.

In my late teenage years, I read Mariama Ba’s “So Long A Letter,” one of the most acclaimed literary books out of Senegal. The powerful images from the book forcefully introduced the world to the life of women in Senegal and the intersection of African traditional culture and Islam. In 2002, as I was becoming a man, at Kenyatta University, my mother and I watched Senegal beat its former colonizer, France, in the World Cup, though it looked more like a contest between Africans in the diaspora against Africans at home; most of the French players are of African descent. My mother was jumping all over the seats with joy. Senegal would later be eliminated in quarter finals.

Dakar airport is like those in any other developing country, with its remnants of colonial structures. The city is beautiful in a way. In an honest sort of way, in a “I am going to charm you and not rob you” kind of way. Nairobi is different. Kampala also. Detroit too. Those places twist people’s arms for the smallest of gifts.

Standing atop the 160 steps of Dakar’s African Renaissance monument, installed by former President Abdoulaye Wade, reminds me of the Gaza strip. Rows of short, square brown unpainted houses. No shine in them, just brown, the color of concrete and sand with the beautiful Atlantic as a backdrop.

The people in them and their taxis on the streets are colorful. Like little butterflies on a brown background. Restaurants like the one where I am seated waiting for fresh fish, have been made very popular by Anthony Bourdain’s “Parts Unknown” on CNN. My waiter is wearing Kanye West’s shoe line. The Yeezys. I cannot afford these shoes. The prices of the limited edition are steep in the United States. How can he? In a country that is over 90% Muslim and elected a Christian president, I guess possibilities abound.

Senegal has been a diplomatic and cultural bridge between the Islamic and black African worlds. Some devout non-hijab wearing Muslim women are still be bound by religion. Iif indeed there is equality, why is the woman in the African Renaissance Monument behind the man? Why is she not by his side as a strong family forging forward together? Why is the African woman always left behind yet she carries the burden of the entire family in most instances.

In this era, one could argue that the monument is not adequately feminist. But then again there is a child pointing to a new dawn. Tomorrow, I need to find out if the child is indeed pointing to a dawn of a new era or to France as some people say.

Senegal maintains closer economic, political, and cultural ties to France than probably any other former French colony in Africa. West Africa also seems to be led by many children. Cunning African children of the French. Black-skinned Frenchman. Identity crises start at the highest levels of the government.

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By Norbert Odero

Italy is back at the European Development Days

Brussels – The 11th edition of the European Development Days will be held in Brussels on June 7 and 8. Organised by the European Commission, the EDD bring the development community together each year to share ideas and experiences in ways that inspire new partnerships and innovative solutions to the world’s most pressing challenges. This year, the Italian delegation will be led by the Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mario Giro, and the Director of the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (AICS), Laura Frigenti.

Each year, the EDD attract over 5 000 participants from over 140 countries, representing 1 200 organisations from the fields of development cooperation, human rights and humanitarian aid. The EU also engages political leaders, development practitioners, the private sector and civil society in shaping the EU’s policies for tackling poverty worldwide. In its Global Village, composed of up to 76 stands, development actors will to demonstrate the benefits of the European Union’s international cooperation. They communicate results and share their experience about “innovative projects and research initiatives”.

Following the approval of a new reform on the Italian international cooperation system in August 2014, its implementation symbolised by the launch of the Italian Agency for Development cooperation (AICS) in January 2016, the Italian Development Cooperation will attend EDD with an important delegation led by the Deputy ministry for Foreign Affairs, Mario Giro, and the Director of AICS, Laura Frigenti.

Mario Giro will attend the first High Level panel of EDD on June 7 – “Investing in creativity, the future is now: from human development to inclusive growth and sustainable societies” – , co-organized by AICS with the British Council, Goethe Institut and other ten European associations.

Since 2008, creative sectors are among the fastest-growing worldwide. Copyright industries contribute to GDP an average 5.2 %, sometimes exceeding 10 %. Similar trends are observed for CCIs contribution to national employment; an average 5.36 % worldwide. Culture’s social impacts enhance also important indirect economic impacts. Investments in cultural participation empower citizens and communities, develop connectedness, well-being, identity formation, social cohesion, value and behaviour change. The digital evolution opens up new opportunities for business development, including in remote areas. During this session, Mario Giro and other speakers (including Firmin Edouard Matoko from Unesco, the singer Rokia Traoré and Felwine Sarr from the University Gaston Bergé in Senegal) will raise awareness about the contribution of creativity to sustainable growth and employment, notably for youth. Also on the agenda are local development, cultural tourism, and trade of cultural goods and services.

In the afternoon of the same day will be the turn of the workshop on “Inclusive Business and the Creation of Development Ecosystems“, organised with De Lab and Inclusive Business Action Network, which will see the participation of the Director of the AICS, Laura Frigenti, together with Lucia del Negro of DeLab and Christian Jahn, Executive Director of IBAN. In this session, speakers will talk about sectoral cross-sectoral partnerships and development-impact innovations. To expand the networks of people involved in international co-operation and to promote innovation in methods and content, the Italian Development Cooperation Agency intends to involve profit organizations and will do so for the first time in 2017 with a dedicated call that will allocate 5 million euros for initiatives proposed by private profit or social enterprises.

This is an absolute novelty, however, provided by the reform adopted in 2014 which includes in the new subjects of cooperation the Italian private sector. Finally, AICS will be present at the Global Village with a stand (“Awakening Beauty”) that will showcase the support of Italian talent in cooperative initiatives to protect the cultural heritage at risk, along with the colors and richness of the stories of cultural businesses supported by the Italian development cooperation.

For more information please visit AICS and EDD17 websites.

By Joshua Massarenti.

Sources: Aics, EDD 2017.

In ‘Maman Colonelle’ a Congolese policewoman takes on ghosts of the past

In Kisangani, the third largest city of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and the capital of its former Orientale Province, the legacies of state decay and conflict continue to affect the social fabric of society. Women and children, who frequently face abuse and rape, are the main victims of this legacy.

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In the documentary Maman Colonelle, which will see its premiere at the Encounters Film Festival in Cape Town this June, Congolese director Dieudo Hamadi shadows a Congolese policewoman, Honorine Munyole, in charge of a special unit for the protection of women and children. Hamadi, a Kisangani native, isn’t a newcomer to Congolese cinema. He also directed Atalaku (2013), which documented Congo’s dramatic 2011 presidential poll, and Examen d’Etat (2014), which scrutinized Congo’s opaque and rigid educational system.

Munyole was born in Bukavu, the capital city of a province in Eastern Congo, which is known for its notoriously high incidence of rape. The documentary begins with Munyole’s transfer from Bukavu to Kisangani. In Bukavu, her courageous work to protect women and children earned her respect and admiration among the community. But having arrived in Kisangani, Munyole, a widow and the mother of seven, is directly confronted with the challenges of a new context: Her new home in Kisangani is sparsely equipped, some of the officers in her unit do not speak the local lingua franca, Swahili (only Lingala), and as a newcomer, she still has to gain the trust of Kisangani’s residents. Ironically, in front of Munyole’s new police station, officers wear yellow jackets reading “The police is there to protect us” to remind citizens of their purpose.

As the case of Kisangani illuminates, many communities in the DRC still have to grapple with unresolved and overlapping legacies of conflict. During the Second Congo War (1998-2003), Rwanda and Uganda were generally seen as allies. However, rivalries surrounding illicit mineral flows and tactical allegiances often caused tensions and confrontations, as documented in Jason Stearns’ book Dancing in the Glory of Monsters. The confrontations cumulated in what is known as the Six-Day War (June 5—10, 2000). Kisangani was the main battleground of the war, and thousands of civilians lost their lives, were injured, and raped.

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George Kibala Bauer

The Archive of Malian Photography

“Every unit of meaning, and not just every image, is a public crossroads of histories of interpretation.” This reflection comes from Paul Landau’s introduction to Images and Empire: Visuality in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa (2002), but also applies to the images and the overall mission of the Archive of Malian Photography.

By digitizing more than 100,000 images by Malian photographers, project director Candace Keller, a professor of African art history and visual culture at Michigan State University, hopes that the collection will “shape the way photographic history and cultural practice in West Africa are taught and studied since the concepts displayed go beyond what we’re used to seeing….” In pursuing these goals, the archive not only preserves an important element of Mali’s artistic past, but also shifts the interpretations possible at this particular historical crossroad.

In collaboration with the Maison Africaine de la Photographie in Bamako, Mali and MSU’s MATRIX: The Center for Digital Humanities and Social Science and funded by National Endowment for the Humanities and the British Library Endangered Archives Programme, the Archive of Malian Photography project has preserved photographs by five Malian photographers: Mamadou Cissé, Adama Kouyaté, Abdourahmane Sakaly, Malick Sidibé, and Tijani Sitou.

Currently, users can explore about 28,000 photos taken by Cissé and Sakaly in Bamako, Mopti, and Ségu. These photographs depict the rich texture of Malian life, as Keller reflected in email correspondence with me.

“These collections house images of political leaders, religious figures, and pop-cultural icons. They also depict rural and urban practices. They capture voting procedures, weddings, birthday parties, horse racing, and other events. They reveal consistent and changing trends in dress hairstyle, and other forms of personal adornment as well as aesthetic and artistic values and innovations in portraiture, across five decades, in at least three different locations in Mali (Bamako, Ségu, Mopti),” Keller explained, “Therefore, the information they capture can inform historical, cultural, and political understanding across a variety of academic disciplines.”

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By Liz Timbs

The White Hunter

FM Centro per l’Arte Contemporanea presents in Milan (Italy) the third event of its exhibition program on the occasion of the next edition of MiArt during the Milan Art Week: Il Cacciatore Bianco/The White Hunter. African Memories and representations.

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The new and wide ranging collection curated by Marco Scotini – following on from the success of the preceding L’Inarchiviabile dedicated to the 1970s in Italy and of Non-Aligned Modernity regarding the Yugoslavian artistic scene during the Cold War – continues an investigation into the decentralization of the hegemonic and indisputable model of western artistic modernity in the current geo-political scenario.

Il Cacciatore Bianco/The White Hunter is an exhibition about the construction that the West has made of Africa rather than about its art. As Marco Scotini, the curator the artistic director of FM Centro per l’Arte Contemporanea, writes: “Recognition begins with a radical criticism of our view of Africa. Are we sure that what the white hunter saw, at the beginning of the previous century, is not still the same subject of our gaze? What should be heard throughout the entire exhibition is how this view (that of the hunter) has been fundamental in the construction of a subjugated Otherness. At the same time, we need to investigate the possibilities that cannot be assimilated that have been excluded”.

The Exhibition

With over 30 contemporaryand an equal number of anonymous, traditional artists with more than 150 works, Il Cacciatore Bianco/The White Hunter presents a path articulated around the forms of representation and reconstruction of memory and African contemporary reality through works from – as well as from the Parisian Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain –  major Italian collections and archive material on Italian colonial history. The artists are positioned over an almost complete map of the African continent, covering 15 different nations: Tunisia, Algeria, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Kenya, Mozambique, Madagascar and South Africa.

The introduction to the entirety of the exhibition has been entrusted to Pascale Marthine Tayou, who will be transforming the entrance to the exhibition space into a sort of hut crammed with trinkets, suggesting the tourists’ concept of an African stereotype.

The first section is a flashback to the colonial Italy of the 1920s and 30s, presented through the film Pays Barbare (2013) by the artists Yervant Gianikian and Angela Ricci Lucchi, pioneers in the archeological reconstruction of imperialism and racial ideology through images. The work begins with the quotation: “Ethiopie, pour ce pays primitive et barbare, l’heure de la civilisation a désormais sonné”. In the same way, Peter Friedl re-proposes Carlo Enrico Rava’s model for the FIAT plant in Tripoli. There will also be some rare written works and documents: books by Francesco Tedesco Zammarano and Carlo Piaggia, some photographic albums on Libya and by Capitano Roberto di San Marzano. Together with Sammi Baloji, Kader Attia also investigates the colonial past within the perspective of cultural re-appropriation, introducing the fetishes, masks and African traditions in a continuous encounter/clash with the disfigured faces of the survivors of the Great War.

The second section is dedicated to traditional ancient artworks with the reconstruction of the rooms dedicated to Negro Art at the 1922 Venice Biennale, at the dawn of Fascism. It presents a nucleus of statues and masks from Mali, from the Ivory Coast, from Cameroon, Gabon and the Congo, aimed at ‘evoking’ that historic moment in time together with its aesthetic sensitivity which was followed by the exclusion of African art from official exhibitions up until very recently.

The third section is a direct reference to the 1989 exhibition Magiciens de la terre, a series of samples of that art which, once again, was presented as being uncontaminated, primitive and original. The examples go from Seni Awa Camara’s beautiful terracotta products to John Goba’s fetishes made from wood and porcupine quills, from Cyprien Tokoudagba’s Vodun divinity to Bodys Isek Kingelez’s imaginary architecture and the Congolese Chéri Samba’s popular paintings.

In the fourth section, the responses to the South African question are displayed. These are by artists such as William Kentridge – with a plurality of languages, amongst which is the video installation History of the Main Complaint (1996) or the reworking of the traditional fetish subject in Twilight of the Idols by Kendell Geers or Moshekwa Langa’s maps. The fourth section continues with various practices of re-appropriation and resistance in the forms of exclusion, hegemony and homogenization, with works by Yinka Shonibare, Rashid Johnson, Ouattara Watts, Cameron Platter and thetapestries of El Anatsui and Abdoulaye Konaté.

The fifth section is dedicated to the morphologies of difference, in which we find hybridized figures that can be recognized in the conditions of migrants, by Wangechi Mutu’s fragmented female figure, John Akomfrah’s anti-mythical films of memory, in Meschac Gaba’s itinerant museums and Georges Adéagbo’s casual and improvised archives. One section is dedicated to historic photographs with portraits by Seydou Keïta, Malick Sidibé’s vintage photographs and Samuel Fosso’s self-portraits.

The exhibition closes with a series of other sections touching on the subjects of identity, diaspora and war, with works by Guy Tillim, Gonçalo Mabunda, Nidhal Chamekh, Nicholas Hlobo and Joël Andrianomearisoa. At the end, an enormous drapery by the young Ghanaian artist Ibrahim Mahama will leave the spectator with an accumulation of collective narratives deposited on jute sacks as the symbolic traces of the open exchange between Africa and the world.

The project, curated by Marco Scotini, has benefitted from a committee of multi-disciplinary advisors which includes: Simon Njami, artistic director of the Dakar Biennial, Gigi Pezzoli, Africanist, Grazia Quaroni, senior curator, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain and Adama Sanneh, director of programs, Fondazione lettera27.

The White Hunter. African memories and representations, curated by Marco Scotini
31.03.2017 – 06.06.2017
Until June 6th, 2017 the exhibition will be open from Wednesday to Saturday from 2 pm to 7.30 pm.

The podcast for African Hip Hop

Msia Kibona Clark is assistant professor of African Studies at Howard University. Her research focuses on in hip hopin Africa. Clark recently served as editor and contributor to Hip Hop and Social Change in Africa: Ni Wakati and has authored numerous articles on hip hop in Tanzania.

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At Howard, Clark teaches a course entitled “Hip Hop and Popular Culture in Africa,” in which students explore hip hop culture throughout Africa. For their research projects, students are charged with creating either an original art project or a podcast. Podcasts from past and current iterations of this course are now collected on the site, HipHopAfrican.

I reached out to Clark on Twitter to learn more about decision to integrate podcasting into her pedagogical style.

Where did you get the idea for HipHop African?

The idea for the website came from a need to have a platform for students doing research to post (archive) their findings. I listen to podcasts daily, and found that there were other faculty who had used them. They seemed to fit great with the theme of the course.

What are the pros/cons of using digital media as a pedagogical tool?

There are more pros than cons. Students get to engage with the music of artists they find and that inserts them into the online dialogues around those artists. That’s huge! The material we discuss in class suddenly has real world implications. Many of the students take their podcasts and blog posts very seriously, knowing that their professor isn’t the only person who will read it. The cons are getting students used to presenting their research in a different way. There are a lot of in-class demonstrations! But when they get the hang of it, it’s great!

What software do you use for the podcasts? Were your students already familiar with the technology or did you have to teach them those skills?

For the podcasts I record, I use the Yeti mic, and I record and edit on Adobe Audition. I use Audio Hijack to record Skype calls, and then import them into Audition. The students typically use their laptop microphones to record and Garage Band or Audacity to edit. I provide links to online tutorials, and we have applied for funding to purchase better recording equipment.

What are your favorite parts of the project?

The best part of the project is having a different method of assessment. Listening to their creativity is really exciting, and each semester I discover new artists through their projects.

In addition to finding new artists on the site (like Gigi Lamayne who I am currently obsessed with thanks to this project), these students’ podcast dig into important issues in African hip hop. A recurring theme in the episodes is feminism in African hip hop, with podcasts on women in African and American hip hop; female emcees in South Africa; and an episode on feminism in South Africa focused on Gigi Lamayne.

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By Liz Timbs

Reflections on a lecture by Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o in Baxter Theatre

It is always interesting to read the headlines that follow after students contest spaces. One of the media outlets reported, “Acclaimed writer Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o interrupted during UCT lecture”.

I must admit, I could not help but laugh a bit. To ask a question of clarity in the beginning of a lecture is to interrupt.

The media has sunk into a sensationalist propaganda machine that reduces robust intellectual engagement to interruptions by so-called ‘unruly students’. It then, becomes important to clarify positions in order to promote critical engagement that is not bias, which is what I hope to do with this piece.

The evening begins with Associate Professor Harry Garuba and Professor Xolela Mangcu addressing the audience. In the midst of the constant engagement on issues of gender and the use of pronouns, both greet the audience with the problematic “ladies and gentlemen”, which erases those bodies that do not identity with those two classifications.

Due to my positionality as a cis-woman writing, I do not wish to take up space by speaking on an issue which I have no lived experience on, but it is important for us to critique the rigidness of both academics to the use of gendered pronouns after so much dissent has been expressed by students in the past.

Now, what I can comment on is the so-called ‘interruption’ in the beginning of the lecture.

As our Father, Professor Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o takes to the podium, students sitting in the front raise their hands in unison to grab his attention. He recognises them and they point to the left where I am sitting and I rise to address him. He is not irritated but seems genuinely interested in listening to the question and asks me to speak over the podium.

To paraphrase, I ask wa Thiong’o about the configuration of the space. As the father of decolonial thought, he writes extensively on the relations between the oppressed and the oppressor, particularly looking at the Mau Mau uprising. Today in South Africa, as in post-independence Kenya, the relations between the oppressed and the oppressor have not fundamentally changed. The oppressed, therefore, still need to form a consolidated voice on decolonisation. But, how can we do this in the presence of our oppressors? So we ask Professor wa Thiong’o to set the tone of the talk by allowing us to converse without the presence of those that oppress us.

Before Professor wa Thiong’o can answer for himself, Mangcu jumps up to oppose the request.

It is interesting to unpack his swift opposition to a fundamental question of the power dynamics in the room and the deeper implications of this. But I won’t dwell on this as Comrade Lindsay Maasdorp’s forthcoming article deals with this.

The moment which I want us to focus on is the necessity of the question.

Firstly, the execution of the question: a critique of student activism in the past has been the seemingly haphazard nature of our activism. Beforehand, students sat down and reflected on Professor wa Thiong’o’s work. For students, his work challenges us to take bold and even unpopular decisions in order to realise decolonisation. Perhaps one of Professor wa Thiong’o’s boldest decisions was his agitation for the abolishment of the English department at the University of Nairobi.

His decision speaks to the desire of the oppressed to create their own pathway towards complete liberation. It answers the question of how can the oppressed use, primarily, the language of the oppressor in their struggle for real liberation. This cannot be, he argues eloquently, as the oppressed must be the protagonists of their liberation. They must fashion a kind of liberation struggle that speaks to their very essence and using their own language is an integral part of this.

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By Kolosa Ntombini

Kenya to cut arts education fund for technical schools

Kenyan universities could face slashed governmental allocations beginning next financial year if some of the funds are diverted to technical institutions. The move is part of the changes contained in a new curriculum that is expected to take effect in May this year. If implemented, this will make a radical shift to technical and science courses against arts and social sciences.

Education, science and technology cabinet secretary, Fred Matiang’i, says he will lobby for increased number of students taking technical courses as opposed to those studying arts at the universities.

The fund raised from the cuts will be given to the country’s Higher Loans Education Board to advance loans to students of technical training institutions, he adds.

Matiang’i says that many students are opting to study commerce, arts and theology instead of technical ones.

“We have filled up our universities, and even expanded them with students acquiring education in areas that we do not have development needs,” Matiang’i said last month (23 January) in Nairobi at the commissioning of some 3,000 candidates joining Technical Vocational Education and Training.

According to Matiang’I, Kenya has many graduates with degrees for jobs that do not exist. “This notion that Technical Vocational Education and Training education is less prestigious should be done away with,” he noted.

But Beatrice Muganda, director, higher education programme at the Kenya-based Partnership for African Social and Governance Research, says arts and technical education are both necessary and there is no need to cut arts funding.

Taking Matiang’i’s route, according to Muganda, would lead to skewed growth favouring sciences and stifling arts and humanities. “Dwindling growth of the university sector will lead to unemployment. But before we get there, there will be apathy with massive student protests,” she explained.

Muganda emphasises that education is not just about fixing technical things in kitchens and roofs, but about research and generation of new knowledge to help the country make great leaps in socio-economic development as well as significant democratic gains.

“Every individual is unique and education is an enabler that should help them develop their full potential and contribute to society,” she says citing musicians, artists, writers, mathematicians and scientists as important for national development.

Continue reading on SciDev.Net

By Baraka Rateng’